Cell membrane- Definition, Composition, Structure, Functions

Cell membrane- Definition, Composition, Structure, Functions

Cell membrane (Plasma membrane) The outer thin membrane or the layer of the living cell is known as the cell membrane. It is also known as the plasma membrane in animal cells. In the plant cells, it is known as plasmalemma. The term cell membrane was given by Nageli and Cramer (1885) for the membrane … Read more

Nucleus- Definition, Structure, Composition, Functions, Worksheet


What is Nucleus? Nucleus Properties The Nucleus is an important cell organelle that is present in the eukaryotic cell. It is derived from the Latin word, ‘nucleus’ or ‘ nuculeus’. It means kernel or seed. It is first described by Robert Brown as the cell organelle. It was named chromatin by the Flemming. It is … Read more

Best AS & A Level Biology Books to Study (From 2022 Exam)

A Level Biology Books for 2022 Exam

Here are some of the best A Level Biology Books that we can study which are useful for examination from 2022. Book Cover page sources: Respective Books Website. Disclaimer: Books cover page, information, and table of contents are only used for educational purposes. If there are any copyright issues regarding the images, cover page, and information of … Read more

Enzyme Inhibitors- Competitive, Noncompetitive, End-product inhibition

Enzyme Inhibitors and Enzyme Inhibition

What are Enzyme Inhibitors? Inhibitors are compounds that convert the enzymes into inactive substances and thus adversely affect the rate of enzymatically-catalyzed reaction is called an enzyme inhibitor, and the process involved is termed enzyme inhibition. Some enzyme inhibitors are normal body metabolites that inhibit a particular enzyme while other inhibitors may be foreign substances, … Read more

Factors affecting enzyme action and immobilized enzymes

Factors that affect enzyme action

Factors that affect enzyme action Enzymes are biological catalysts that accelerate the rate of chemical reactions in the biological system of living beings. Like catalysts, enzymes are also affected by a number of factors that regulate enzyme action. These factors are related to the chemical nature of enzymes as enzymes are proteins, and proteins are … Read more

Enzymes- Definition, Structure, Types, Mode of action, Functions


Enzymes Definition An enzyme is a protein biomolecule that acts as a biocatalyst by regulating the rate of various metabolic reactions without itself being altered in the process. The name ‘enzyme’ literally means ‘in yeast’, and this was referred to denote one of the most important reactions involved in the production of ethyl alcohol and … Read more

Lipids- Definition, Structure and Functions, Fatty acids

Lipids and Fatty Acids

What are Lipids? Lipids are a group of diverse macromolecules consisting of fatty acids and their derivatives that are insoluble in water but soluble in organic solvents. Lipids consist of fats, oils, hormones, and certain components of membranes that are grouped together because of their hydrophobic interactions. The lipids are essential constituents of the diet because of … Read more

Amino acids and Proteins- Definition, Structure, Types, Functions

Amino acids and Proteins

Amino acids and their structure Proteins are macromolecules made up of monomers called amino acids. Amino acids are the building block of all proteins. An amino acid is a simple organic compound consisting of a basic group (-NH2), an acidic group (-COOH), and an organic R group that is unique to each amino acid. The … Read more

Immunity- Immune System and Immunization

Immunity- Immune System and Immunization

The Immunity Phenomenon Mechanism of Immunity As much as immunity curtails to the 430 B.C, significantly improved immunity phenomenal were made in the 18th century starting with Edward Jenner in 1798 after he noticed that milkmaids that had contracted the mild-disease of cowpox, were immune to smallpox (a fatally deadly disease). He practically inoculated cowpox … Read more