Carbohydrates- definition, classification with structure and functions

Carbohydrates- definition, classification with structure and functions

Carbohydrates Definition Carbohydrates are a large group of organic compounds consisting of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen which can be typically broken down into monomers to release energy in living beings. These are the most abundant biomolecules in the living body in terms of mass. Carbohydrates are also known as saccharides since many of those have … Read more

Water- Definition, Structure, Characteristics, Properties, Functions

Water- Definition, Structure, Characteristics, Properties, Functions

Water Definition Water is an inorganic liquid chemical that is colorless, odorless, tasteless that makes up most of the Earth’s hydrosphere and the fluids in the body of all living beings. Water is an extremely important component for the existence of life as it is vital for all biological processes. It doesn’t, however, have any … Read more

Active and Passive Immunity- Definition, Types, Differences

Active and Passive Immunity- Definition, Types, Differences

Immunity Definition Immunity can be defined as the ability of a multicellular organism’s body to protect themselves from foreign agents and infectious agents, by being able to destroy them to prevent further body infections. Immunity to infectious microorganisms can be achieved by active or passive immunization. In each case, immunity can be acquired either by … Read more

Antibodies- Definition, Structure, Types, Forms, Functions

Antibodies- Definition, Structure, Types, Forms, Functions

Introduction and History for Antibodies These are protein molecules naturally produced or synthesized by the B-lymphocytes. They are also known as Immunoglobulins. The use of the term antibody defines an Immunoglobulin molecule that has specificity for an epitope of the molecules that make up antigens. Produced and secreted by plasma cells, antibodies are soluble molecules … Read more

Antigens- Definition, Properties, Types & Antigen Recognition

Antigens- Definition, Properties, Types & Antigen Recognition

Antigens Definition An antigen is a substance or an element that has the ability to induce an immune response. Antigens are foreign substances and they are known to provoke the immune system to produce proteins known as antibodies, which act upon these antigens to eliminate them from the host. Antigens are foreign, which means that … Read more

MHC Molecules, Antigen Processing and Presentation

MHC Class I and II Pathways

Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) molecules characteristics The Major Histocompatibility complex is a genetic locus that encodes the glycoprotein molecules (transplantation antigens) which are responsible for tissue rejection of grafts between genetically unidentical individuals. It is also the molecule that binds the peptide antigens processed by Antigen-presenting Cells and presents them to T-cells, hence they are … Read more

Monoclonal Antibodies- Definition, Types, Production, Applications

Production of monoclonal antibodies

What are Monoclonal antibodies? The body naturally produces antibodies, which are elements of the immune system produced by B-lymphocytes, that bind to foreign proteins in the body known as antigens, which the aim of eliminating them. They naturally circulate in the body searching for foreign bodies (antigens) and ones they attach to the antigen, they … Read more

Testing for Biological Molecules

Testing for Biological Molecules

Benedict’s test for reducing sugars Definition Benedict’s test is a biochemical test performed to distinguish reducing sugars (monosaccharides and some disaccharides) from non-reducing sugars. Objectives To detect the presence of simple carbohydrates in a solution. To distinguish between reducing and non-reducing sugars. Principle The carbohydrates having a free or potentially free, aldehyde or ketone group … Read more

Cambridge AS & A Level Biology 9700 Syllabus 2022-2024

Cambridge AS & A Level Biology 9700 Syllabus 2022-2024

For examination in June and November 2022, 2023, and 2024. Image Credit: Cambridge Assessment International Education. Candidates for Cambridge International AS Level Biology study the following topics: 1. Cell structure 1.1 The microscope in cell studies 1.2 Cells as the basic units of living organisms 2. Biological molecules 2.1 Testing for biological molecules 2.2 Carbohydrates … Read more